Stoicism: the difference between negative visualization and negative attitude

We are inundated with endless streams of advice telling us we need to visualize our dreams and desires, and to always have a positive attitude about our future.

The ancient and modern Stoics do not believe this is wise. They believe that a “positive attitude” will more likely lead to disappointment and disillusion since life is…



Alexander Hay is a US lawyer now living in Tbilisi, Republic of Georgia. Some have accused him of being a curmudgeon, but what do they know???? Noisy kids!

Love podcasts or audiobooks? Learn on the go with our new app.

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store